Sources of Knowledge:
1. Personal Experience
2. Authority (Expert Opinion, Specialist)
3. Deductive Reasoning
All research text-books contains chapter on sampling.
This is a research text-book.
Therefore, all research books contain a chapter on sampling)
4. Inductive Reasoning
(Every research book examined contains a chapter on sampling. Therefore, all research books contain a chapter on sampling)
• The goal of scientific endeavors is to explain, predict, and / or control phenomenon by employing:
o Induction of Hypotheses based on observations.
o Deduction of Implication of Hypotheses
o Testing of the implication.
o Confirmation or disconfirmation of the Hypotheses.
• It is the formal, systematic application of the scientific method to the study of problems.
• Business / Educational Research is the formal, systematic application of the scientific method to the study of educational problems.
• The major difference between Educational / Business research and other scientific research is the nature of the phenomena studied. It is considerably more difficult to explain, predict, and control situations involving human beings.
• However, steps remain the same.
Classification of Research by Purpose:
1. Basic Research:
It is conducted solely for the purpose of theory development and refinement.
2. Applied Research:
It is conducted for the purpose of applying, or testing, theory and evaluating its usefulness in solving problems.
3. Evaluation Research:
The purpose of this research is to facilitate decision making regarding the relative worth of two or more alternative actions.
4. Research & Development (R & D):
The purpose is not to formulate or test theory but to develop effective products.
5. Action Research:
The purpose of this type of research is to solve class room problems through the application of the scientific methods.
Classification of Research by Method:
I. Historical Research:
Studying, understanding and explaining past events.
The purpose is to arrive at conclusions concerning causes, effects, or trends of past occurrences that may help to explain present events and anticipate future events.
II. Descriptive Research: It involves collecting data in order to test hypotheses or answer questions concerning the current status of the subject of the study.
Descriptive Data is collected through a Questionnaire survey, an interview, or observation.
III. Co-relational Research:
It attempts to determine whether, and to what degree, a relationship exists between two or more quantifiable variables.
The purpose is to establish a relationship (or lack of it) or to use relationship in making predictions.
IV. Causal-Comparative and Experimental Research
In this, the difference between the groups is studied
In this study Independent Variable, or ‘cause’ is not manipulated, it has already occurred.